In general these campaigns (including on LSM and allied radio and TV channels) suggest that people evaluate whether journalists are citing proper sources, whether 'experts' have viable credentials and whether there might be a vested interest or advertiser that benefits from the publication of any given report.
But the propagandists are responding with what amounts to their own campaign of 'media illiteracy' according to a brief but telling overview of recent examples by researcher Martins Kaprans released by the Center for European Policy Analysis (CEPA).
It amounts to a "Kremlin attempt to undermine media literacy initiatives in Latvia’s public space," Kaprans writes, pointing out that rather than engage in factual debate about the rights or wrongs of a report, the standard replies to Latvian concerns in Russian state-backed media are mockery mixed with blanket denial.
"Russia’s reaction to the [research] illustrates the difficulties Latvia’s media literacy initiatives must endure. To be sure, these initiatives may strengthen civil resilience toward the Kremlin’s disinformation efforts. Yet the reliability issue is particularly relevant, in that criticism of pro-Kremlin media produced outside the Russophone milieu might lack credibility since many Russian speakers see such external criticism as profoundly biased," concludes Kaprans.
You can read the full summary HERE.